Système solaire



Planets Data


Mass
1024 kg
0.33011 4.8675 5.9723 0.64171 1898.19 568.34 86.813 102.413
Volume
1010 km3
6.083 92.843 108.321 16.318 143128 82713 6.833 6254
Equatorial radius
km
2439.7 6051.8 6378.14 3396.2 71492 60268 25559 24764
Polar radius
km
2439.7 6051.8 6356.75 3376.2 66854 54364 24973 24341
Volumetric mean radius
km
2439.7 6051.8 6371.01 3389.5 69911 58232 25362 24622
Core radius
km
3485 1700
Ellipticity 0 0 0.00335 0.00589 0.06487 0.09796 0.02293 0.01708
Mean density
kg/m3
5427 5243 5514 3933 1326 687 1271 1638
Gravity
m/s2
3.7 8.87 9.798 3.71 24.79 10.44 8.87 11.15
Acceleration
m/s2
3.7 8.87 9.78 3.69 23.12 8.96 8.69 11
Escape velocity
km/s
4.3 10.36 11.186 5.03 59.5 35.5 21.3 23.5
GM
x 106 km3/s2
0.022032 0.32486 0.3986 0.042828 126.687 37.931 5.794 6.8351
Bond albedo 0.068 0.77 0.306 0.25 0.343 0.342 0.3 0.29
Visual geometric albedo 0.142 0.65 0.367 0.17 0.52 0.47 0.51 0.41
Visual magnitude V(1,0) -0.42 -4.4 -3.86 -1.52 -9.4 -6.88 -7.19 -6.87
Solar irradiance
W/m2
9082.7 2601.3 1361 586.2 50.26 14.82 3.69 1.508
Black-body temperature
K
439.6 226.6 254 209.8 109.9 81 58.1 46.6
Topographic range
km
7 13 20.4 30
Moment of inertia
I/MR2
0.35 0.33 0.3308 0.366 0.254 0.21 0.225
J2
x 10-6
50.3 4.458 1082.63 1960.45 14736 16298 3343.43 3411
Satellites 0 0 1 2 67 62 27 14
Semimajor axis
106 km
57.91 108.21 149.6 227.92 778.57 1433.53 2872.46 4495.06
Sidereal orbit period
days
87.969 224.701 365.256 686.98 4332.59 10759.2 30685.4 60189
Tropical orbit period
days
87.968 224.695 365.242 686.973 4330.6 10746.9 30588.7 59799.9
Perihelion
106 km
45 107.48 147.09 206.62 740.52 1352.55 2741.3 4444.45
Aphelion
106 km
69.82 108.94 152.1 249.23 816.62 1514.5 3003.62 4545.67
Synodic period
days
115.88 583.92 779.94 398.88 378.09 369.66 367.49
Mean orbital velocity
km/s
47.36 35.02 29.78 24.07 13.06 9.68 6.8 5.43
Max. orbital velocity
km/s
58.98 35.26 30.29 26.5 13.72 10.18 7.11 5.5
Min. orbital velocity
km/s
38.86 34.79 29.29 21.97 12.44 9.09 6.49 5.37
Orbit inclination
deg
7 3.39 0 1.85 1.304 2.485 0.772 1.769
Orbit eccentricity 0.2056 0.0067 0.0167 0.0935 0.0489 0.0565 0.0457 0.0113
Sidereal rotation period
h
1407.6 -5832.6 23.9345 24.6229 9.925 10.656 -17.24 16.11
Length of day
h
4222.6 2802 24 24.6597 9.9259 10.656 17.24 16.11
Obliquity to orbig
deg
0.034 177.36 23.44 25.19 3.13 26.73 97.77 28.32
Inclination of equator
deg
0.034 2.64 23.44 25.19 3.13 82.23 28.32
Min. distance from Earth
106 km
77.3 38.2 0 55.7 588.5 1195.5 2581.9 4305.9
Max. distance from Earth
106 km
221.9 261 0 401.3 968.1 1658.5 3157.3 4687.3
Max. apparent diameter from Earth
seconds of arc
13 66 25.1 50.1 20.1 4.1 2.4
Min. apparent diameter from Earth
seconds of arc
4.5 9.7 3.5 29.8 14.5 3.3 2.2
Maximum visual magnitude -1.9 -4.6 -2.91 -2.94 5.32 7.78


Source de données: IAU/IAG Working Group Report, 2006; Astronomical Almanac, 2000, 2001; Global Earth Physics, American Geophysical Union, 1995; Astrophysical Quantities, C.W. Allen, 1981, 2000; JPL Ephemeris DE430/DE431; IAU bulletins/announcements, Wikipedia
Visualization: Julian Garnier

Mass

Mass of the body in 1024 kilograms.

Volume

Volume of the body in 1010 km3

Equatorial radius

Radius of the body at the equator in kilometers

Polar radius

Radius of the body at the poles in kilometers

Volumetric mean radius

Radius of a sphere with the same volume as the body

Core radius

Radius of the planet core in kilometers

Ellipticity (flattening)

The ratio (equatorial - polar radius)/(equatorial radius), dimensionless

Mean density

Average density of the body (mass/volume) in kilograms/(meter3)

(Surface) gravity

Equatorial gravitational acceleration at the surface of the body or the 1 bar level, not including the effects of rotation, in meters/(second2)

Surface acceleration

Effective equatorial gravitational acceleration at the surface of the body or the 1 bar level, including the effects of rotation, in meters/(second2)

Escape velocity

Initial velocity required to escape the body's gravitational pull in kilometers/second

GM

Gravitational constant times the mass of the body in 106 kilometers3/seconds2

Visual geometric albedo

The ratio of the body's brightness at a phase angle of zero to the brightness of a perfectly diffusing disk with the same position and apparent size, dimensionless.

Bond albedo

The fraction of incident solar radiation reflected back into space without absorption, dimensionless. Also called planetary albedo.

Visual magnitude V(1,0)

The visual magnitude of the body if it were one AU (1.496 x 10^8 kilometers) from the Earth at a phase angle of zero, dimensionless.

Solar irradiance

Solar energy on the body in Watts/(meter2)

Black-body temperature

Equivalent black body temperature is the surface temperature the body would have if it were in radiative equilibrium and had no atmosphere, but the same albedo, in Kelvin.

Topographic range

Difference in elevation between the highest and lowest points on the planet's surface, in kilometers.

Moment of inertia

The moment of inertia of the body expressed as the rotational inertia divided by the body's (mass x radius^2). A hollow spherical shell has a moment of inertia of 2/3, a homogeneous sphere 0.4

J2

The ratio of the difference in the moments of inertia to the mass of the body times the radius2, (C-A)/(M R2), x 10-6, dimensionless

Satellites

The number of moons orbiting the planet, as certified by the IAU

Semimajor axis

Mean distance from the Sun (or other central body in the case of satellites) from center to center in 106 kilometers

Sidereal period

The time it takes the body to make one revolution about the Sun relative to the fixed stars in days.

Tropical orbit period

The average time for the body to make one revolution about the Sun from one point in its seasonal orbit to the equivalent point (e.g. equinox to equinox) in days. For Earth, this equals exactly 1 year.

Synodic period

The time interval between similar configurations in the orbit (e.g. opposition) of the body and Earth, in days.

Perihelion

The point in a body's orbit closest to the Sun, in 106 kilometers.

Aphelion

The point in a body's orbit furthest from the Sun, in 106 kilometers.

Mean orbital velocity

The average speed of the body in elliptical orbit, in kilometers/second.

Maximum orbital velocity

Maximum orbital velocity, at perihelion, in kilometers/second.

Minimum orbital velocity

Minimum orbital velocity, at aphelion, in kilometers/second.

Orbit inclination

The inclination of the orbit to the ecliptic, in degrees.

Orbit eccentricity

A measure of the circularity of the orbit, equal to (aphelion - perihelion distance)/(2 x semi-major axis). For the Galilean satellites, the forced eccentricity is given. For a circular orbit eccentricity = 0. Dimensionless.

Sidereal rotation period

The time for one rotation of the body on its axis relative to the fixed stars, in hours. A minus sign indicates retrograde rotation.

Length of day

The average time in hours for the Sun to move from the noon position in the sky at a point on the equator back to the same position, on Earth this defines a 24 hour day.

Obliquity to orbit

The angle between the body's equator and the body's orbital plane, with north defined by the right-hand rule. (J2000)

Inclination of equator

The angle between the equator and orbital plane with north defined as pole axis above (north of) the plane of the solar system, also denoted as axial tilt. (J2000)

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